4 The Solar Energy Above The Earth's Atmosphere
Author: Source: Datetime: 20161224 12:01:34
The average radius of the earth is only 6.37X10^{3}km, which is almost a point relative to the dailyearth mean distance (about 1.50 X 10^{8}km), which forms a 32′plane angle with the sun of 1.39X10^{6}km in diameter，the solid angle Ωs is:
In the formula, RS is the solar radius; Dse is the dailyearth distance.
Geometric Relationships of Day  Earth Mean Distance
Ds  Sun Diameter, 1.39X10^{6}km; De  Earth Diameter, 1.27X10^{4}km; Dse  DayEarth Distance, 1.50 X 10^{8}km
The solar irradiance in the unit solid angle on the upper surface of the Earth's atmosphere is
Where T_{s} is the average temperature of the solar surface, 5.6679 X10^{8}W/(M^{2}•K^{4}) K is the average temperature of the solar surface, T_{s} is the average temperature of the solar surface, K
The solar irradiance I_{sc} of unit surface area perpendicular to the solar pipeline in the solid angle Ω_{s} of the upper atmosphere of the atmosphere is
From (11), we know that σ, Rs, T_{s} are constant, so Isc is only a function of Dse. The eccentricity of the long and short axis of the elliptical orbit of the Earth running around the sun is only 3%, that is, Dse is only slightly changed in one year, the change of Isc is only ± 3.5% of the annual average value. Isc is defined as a constant, that is defined in the Japanese  to the average distance of the Earth's atmosphere at the upper boundary perpendicular to the surface of the sun, unit area, unit time received solar radiation energy for the solar constant. In 1981, the World Meteorological Organization (WMO) published the value of the solar constant Isc = 1368 / M^{2} =
8.21 J / ( cm^{2} •min)
Of course, the sun's own activities can also cause fluctuations in solar radiation. But over the years, observations from around the world have shown that the annual amount of solar activity is only about 2.5% higher than the quiet year of solar activity. Therefore, the solar constants can be regarded as the maximum limit of the solar irradiance received on the Earth.
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