5 Attenuation of Solar Radiation in The Atmosphere
Author: Source: Datetime: 2016-12-24 12:03:00
Yang from the distance of 1.5X108km its light and heat and particle flow to 3X105km / s speed to the Earth radiation, will be the Earth's atmosphere interference and block.
The earth is a large magnet. A large magnetic field is formed around it. Magnetic field control of more than 1000km until tens of thousands of kilometers, or even up to hundreds of thousands of kilometers of the vast region, called the Earth's magnetosphere. When the sun particles radiation to the Earth,
Which is blocked by the magnetosphere and can not reach the ground. Even if a small number of particles into the human body, often also magnetic layer within the magnetic field capture. This is the Earth's solar radiation set by the "first line of defense."
In the earth's atmosphere beneath the Earth's magnetosphere, the troposphere, the stratosphere, and the ionosphere all absorb, reflect, and scatter solar radiation. Among them, the ionosphere can not only absorb or reflect the radio waves in solar radiation, but also
The harmful ultraviolet ray portion and the X-ray portion are obstructed here. This is the "second line of defense."
In the stratosphere about 24km from the Earth's surface, there is a particularly rich layer of ozone, called the ozone layer. The role of the ozone layer is great, you can get into the vast majority of ultraviolet absorption. Therefore, the ozone layer has formed
"Third line of defense." As the Earth set up the above "three lines of defense", so you can eliminate the harmful part of solar radiation, so that the human and a variety of biological protection.
Because of the presence and impact of the atmosphere, solar radiation reaching the Earth's surface can be divided into two parts: one is direct radiation, which is the solar radiation that does not change direction; the other is scattered radiation, which is reflected by the atmosphere or clouds and
Scattering changes the direction of solar radiation. The sum of the two is called total radiation. In general, clear daytime direct radiation accounted for a large proportion of total radiation, while the rainy day scattered radiation radiation ratio of the total. The use of solar energy is actually utilized
Total solar radiation. However, for most solar energy utilization equipment, in particular, the condensing heat collecting means, the direct radiation portion is utilized.
In short, according to observations and calculations, reaching the upper reaches of the earth's atmosphere of solar radiation power of 1.77X1017W, after attenuation by the atmosphere. Among them, by atmospheric molecules and dust reflected back to the cosmic space solar radiation power of 5.2X1016W, about
Accounting for 30%; by the atmosphere to absorb part of 4.0X1016W, accounting for about 23%; therefore, through the atmosphere to reach the Earth's surface solar radiation power was 8.1X1016W, about 47%. In other words, can reach the Earth's surface through the atmosphere of solar energy
Less than half the upper bound of Earth's atmosphere. In addition, the surface of the Earth's surface area of 79% of the ocean, so that the surface of the solar radiation reached the surface of the earth's surface power reaches only 21% of the solar radiation power, that is about 1.785X1016W.
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