Low-cost High-performance Water System Sodium-ion Solar Energy Storage
Author: Source: Datetime: 2016-11-22 15:28:39
The Limitations of Secondary Battery System
In order to develop high-safety, low-cost, long-life and large-scale energy storage technologies for large-scale energy storage applications, scientists worldwide have conducted extensive and detailed research. At present, the main energy storage technologies are electrochemical energy storage, mechanical energy storage, electromagnetic energy storage and phase change energy storage, which electrochemical energy storage technology and other energy storage compared with high efficiency, low investment, the use of safety , Application flexibility and other characteristics, most in line with today's energy development. In a variety of electrochemical storage mode, the secondary battery use and maintenance of the most convenient. However, the current mature secondary battery system, almost not suitable for large-scale energy storage applications. Traditional lead-acid, nickel-cadmium batteries contain a large number of harmful heavy metal elements, large-scale applications in the production and disposal of the stage causing serious environmental pollution, and strict environmental requirements, only for indoor operating environment; nickel-metal hydride batteries using expensive Rare metals, resources and prices difficult to meet the cost of large-scale storage requirements. In addition to the use of noble metal vanadium flow battery, there are toxic and corrosive problems; sodium sulfur solar storage batteries because of the need for high temperature, liquid sulfur and sodium metal oxide on the alumina membrane with a strong corrosive, likely to cause combustion.
Organic ion battery: lithium ion or sodium ion
Compared with the conventional secondary battery described above, the organic ion battery has the characteristics of high energy density, high magnification, and long cycle life because of the ion implantation and dissipation of ions in the positive and negative electrodes and the diffusion between the electrodes as the basic principle of charge and discharge. In the performance to meet the energy storage system technical requirements. However, due to its extensive use of flammable organic electrolyte, in the production and use of the process will cause a deflagration accident, there are security problems. The water-based ion batteries as a result of neutral saline solution as an electrolyte, both to avoid the flammable organic electrolyte problems, but also to overcome the traditional water battery high pollution, short life (such as lead-acid batteries) and expensive (Ni-MH) Of the shortcomings, is able to meet the technical requirements of large-scale energy storage system. Therefore, in recent years, the research and development of water ion (lithium, sodium, etc.) batteries has received more and more attention.
However, in fact, the earth's lithium resources is difficult to support large-scale energy storage system applications. The world's lithium reserves of basic resources (lithium carbonate) is about 58M tons, and most of the lithium resources are concentrated in the altitude of 4000 meters above the plateau salt lake, development and utilization difficulties, now known as the recoverable reserves of about 25M tons. But the current global consumption of lithium carbonate is about 7 to 8 million tons, is expected to recoverable time, but 50 years. Lithium ion batteries according to the prior calculation: Lithium-ion batteries per KWh lithium equivalent to about 1.4kg of lithium carbonate. In 2011 the global cumulative wind power installed capacity of 240GW (KMW), 8 hours to meet the need for electricity storage contract 1.5M tons of lithium carbonate. Not to mention the growing demand for lithium in electric vehicles.
On the other hand, sodium is chemically similar to lithium and is therefore considered to be an alternative to lithium for lithium ion battery systems. Sodium is one of the most abundant resources on the planet, and it can be said to be inexhaustible. The price is also significantly reduced, usually 1/10 of the lithium salt. Moreover, the traditional organic solvent as the electrolyte of lithium-ion battery is facing high cost, complex production, security and other issues, so that there is a bottleneck in the field of large-scale energy storage. In contrast, aqueous electrolytes have faster ion transport rates, cheaper, safer, easier to manufacture batteries, and allow for the use of thicker electrodes. In summary, the use of aqueous sodium electrolyte battery is considered the most potential for large-scale energy storage battery system, a recent industry research focus.
The basic principle of sodium ion battery in water system
The sodium ion battery uses an aqueous solution containing sodium ions as an electrolyte, and the positive electrode is composed of a different ion intercalating compound. During charging, the sodium ions are removed from the positive electrode and diffused to the negative electrode through the electrolyte, adsorption or intercalation reaction takes place at the negative electrode, and electrons are transferred from the positive electrode to the negative electrode. The discharge process is opposite to the charging process.
Water sodium battery is a new energy storage batteries system, the electrode forming, the choice of fluid collection, the development of electrolyte functional additives, and so a series of technical problems still need to be overcome, the battery performance is still great Room for improvement.
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