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Description Of Solar Radiation

Author: Source: Datetime: 2016-09-12 10:23:11

1.1 Introduction to the Sun

The sun is a star closest to Earth, is the center of the portable solar power generator system, it's the quality of the solar system, the total mass of 99.865%. Sun also own the only solar power system luminous celestial body, it brings to light and heat the Earth. If there is no sunlight exposure, the ground temperature will quickly be reduced to near absolute zero. Because exposure to sunlight, the average surface temperature will be maintained at around 14 , the formation of the human condition and the vast majority of biological survival. In addition to atomic energy, geothermal and volcanic eruptions, the most energy on the ground with the sun directly or indirectly related to [3].


The sun is a fireball of hot gas mainly composed of hydrogen and helium, with a radius of 6.96X105km (109 times the radius of the Earth), a mass of about 1.99*1027t (33 times the mass of Earth), the planet's average density is about 1/4. Effective sun's surface temperature is 5762K, and the internal temperature of the central region of Gao tens of millions of degrees. The sun's energy comes mainly from hydrogen fusion reaction polymerization into helium, hydrogen 6.57*1011kg per second polymerization of 6.53 1011kg helium continuously produce 3.90 102kw energy. The energy in the form of electromagnetic waves at a speed of 3X105km/s of shooting through space in all directions. Solar radiation the Earth receives only one of 2.2 billion minutes, that is 1.77*1014kW reaches the upper edge of the Earth's atmosphere ( "upper bound"), through the atmosphere due to the time of Decay, and finally about 8.5X1013kW reach the Earth's surface, this number equivalent to the generating capacity of the world dozens of times. Today we use lifePo4 batteries to stored solar power as power bank.

According to the current rate of nuclear solar energy generated by the sun is estimated that hydrogen reserves sufficient to maintain the 60 billion years, the Earth's internal organization by polymerization into helium thermonuclear reaction, its life expectancy is about 50 billion years, therefore, in this sense, we can say the sun energy is inexhaustible.

The great mass of the sun, the sun itself under the action of gravity, sun gathered material to the core, the core center of the high density and temperature, enabling the occurrence of nuclear reactions. These nuclear reactions are solar energy, energy generated continuously to space radiation and solar activity control. According to various indirect and direct information from the center to the edge that the sun can be divided into nuclear reaction zone, radiation zone, convection zone and the solar power generator atmosphere.

 (1) nuclear reaction zone

 In 25% (ie 0.25K) area radius of the sun, is the core of the sun, concentrated more than half of the sun's mass. Here a temperature of about 15 million degrees (K), atmospheric pressure is about 250 billion (latm = 101325Pa), density close to 158g/cm3. This part of the energy generated by 99% of the total solar power generator by the sun's child, and radiates outward convection and radiation pattern. Emit gamma rays when hydrogen polymerization, these rays through the colder regions, children can consume, increasing wavelength into visible light and X-rays or ultraviolet light.

 (2) radiation zone

Outside the nuclear reaction zone is the radiation zone, belongs to range from 0.25~0.81 ?, temperature dropped to 130,000, density decreased to 0.079g / cm3. In the sun's core solar energy generated by the radiation transmitted through the area out.

 (3) convection zone

 Outside the radiation zone is the convection zone (the troposphere), belongs to the range decreased from 0.8~1.01 ?, temperature of 5000K, density lCT8g/ Cm3. In the convection zone, energy is spread mainly by convection. Convection zone and its inside parts are invisible, their nature can only rely on observation consistent with the theoretical calculation to determine.

 (4) the solar atmosphere


Can be divided into the photosphere, chromosphere, corona and other levels, all levels of physical properties are apparently different. The bottom of the solar atmosphere, called the photosphere, all the light emitted from the sun almost all the levels. Continuous spectrum of the sun is basically a ball of light in the spectral absorption lines in the solar spectrum substantially within this layer is formed. Photosphere thickness of about 500km. Chromosphere is the middle of the solar atmosphere, is extending outwardly ball of light, a straight may extend to several thousand kilometers of altitude. The outermost layer of the solar atmosphere called the corona, the corona is extremely thin shell of gas, it can be extended to several solar radii away. Strictly speaking, only the solar atmosphere above hierarchical formal sense, there is not actually clear boundaries between the layers, their temperature, density with altitude is continuously changing.

 Visible, it is not a certain solar blackbody temperature, but a number of layers of different wavelengths of radiation, the portable solar power generator the radiation absorbing member. However, in the description of the sun, the sun will generally regarded as a temperature of 6000K, 0.3~ 3.0Mm wavelength of a black body radiation.

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