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Organic Solar Power Batteries

Author: Source: Datetime: 2016-10-04 11:52:12
The new solar power batteries, which are essentially different from the ones described earlier in this chapter, are organic solar power batteries; as the name implies, are solar cells that form the core of organic materials. In organic materials, the absorption of photons does not produce electrons and holes, but generates an exciton. An exciton is in effect a confined electron-hole pair, which must be overcome in order to release the charge therein. To this end, a variety of mechanisms have been studied to form different types of organicsolar power batteries that rely on these mechanisms.

Schottky type "organic battery

The first organic solar power batteries are commonly referred to as "Schottky type" of organic batteries, which uses organic materials for the magnesium phthalocyanine dye, the dye layer sandwiched between two different electrodes in the work function has been 200! In this cell, the absorption of photons produces a pair of electrons and holes in the organic semiconductor film, where electrons are extracted by the electrodes of the low work function and the holes are filled with electrons from the high work-function electrode, Thereby forming a photocurrent. The Schottky barrier formed by the contact between the organic semiconducting film and the electrodes of two non-workfunctions is the basis of the photo-induced charge transfer solar powered portable generator. In this cell, the excitons formed by photoexcitation can be separated only by the electric field in the diffusion layer of the Schottky junction. Excitons at other sites have a limited migration distance (usually less than most recombines before they are separated into electrons and holes.) The conversion efficiency of such cells is usually low, usually less than 1%.

Double-layer organic battery

Another type of organic solar power batteries uses a double-layer membrane structure, the essence of double-layer film is to use two kinds of organic semiconductor materials to imitate the inorganic heterojunction. In a heterojunction organic battery, a type material is usually referred to as a donor, and a type material is called an acceptor, and if the light is incident from the donor material side, the electrons in the exciton are lowered along the valence band And the holes are transferred from the valence band of the acceptor to the valence band of the donor region in the direction of the rising energy of the conduction band.When the electrons and holes move from the conduction band of donor to the conduction band of the donor, The excitons are separated into free electrons and holes are diffused to the electrode, resulting in photocurrent.The heterojunction significantly improved the efficiency of exciton separation, the earliest of a heterojunction cell called organic dyes And a copper-phthalocyanine double-layer film was formed, and the photoelectric conversion efficiency was about 1% .In 1992, it was found that excited states of electrons can be injected from organic semiconductors very quickly.In the molecule, And the reverse process is much slower. That is to say, the exciton can realize the charge separation at a very high rate at the interface between the organic semiconducting material and the organic semiconductor material, so it is a good electron acceptor material. A heterojunction heterojunction solar cell was fabricated by using a kind of organic semiconducting material, and the conversion efficiency of the heterojunction organic cell was up to 6%.
Although the interface between the two films has a large area, the excitons can only be separated in the interface region, and the excitons generated far from the interface are lost in the process of moving to the electrode. So people in the double-layer membrane heterojunction based on the battery and put forward a concept known as the overall heterojunction), is the donor material and the receptor material made of a mixed with you, you have me , The excitons generated at any position can reach the interface between the donor and the acceptor through a short path. At the same time, the positive and negative carriers formed at the interface can be formed by a shorter route Reach the electrode solar powered portable generator. Compared with double-layer membrane cells, the efficiency of this structure is quite obvious.

Dye - sensitized cell

Another new type of plastic solar power batteries can also be included in the list of organic photovoltaic cells, that is, dye-sensitized solar cells, by the Swiss Institute of Higher Engineering in Lausanne. The battery breakthrough is mainly to imitate the principle of photosynthesis. The substrate may be glass or a flexible, transparent polymer foil. The substrate has a layer of transparent conductive oxide, typically silicon dioxide, on which is then grown a thick film of about 10 nanometer porous titanium dioxide particles and then coated with a layer of terpyridine derivative dye Of the particles. The electrodes of the upper layer are in addition to glass or polymer and cobalt is also added as a catalyst for the electrolyte reaction solar powered portable generator. Between the two-layer electrode is injected into the electrolyte. The working principle of the battery dye molecules absorb solar energy transition to the excited state, the excited state is unstable, the electron quickly into the adjacent conduction band, the dye in the loss of electrons are quickly compensated from the electrolyte, into the The electrons in the conduction band eventually enter the conductive film, and then generate a photocurrent through the outer loop. 1998 0 4, and so successfully produced all solid-state dye nanocrystalline solar cells for solar powered portable generator, to overcome the liquid electrolyte exists due to a series of problems. In 2003, they improved their performance by doping. At present, the dye-sensitized cell of the highest conversion efficiency of about 10%.

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