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Application and Development of Energy Storage Technology in Power Grid

Author: Source: Datetime: 2016-11-15 17:34:14
In recent decades, energy storage technology research and development has been subject to national energy, transportation, electricity, telecommunications and other sectors of the attention. The application of energy storage technology in power system is mainly focused on renewable solar power generator shift peak, distributed energy and micro-grid, electric power auxiliary service, power quality FM, electric vehicle charging and replacement, etc., is to solve the new energy power storage Key Technologies. Energy can be converted into chemical energy, potential energy, kinetic energy, electromagnetic energy and other forms of storage, according to the specific technical types can be divided into physical energy storage, electrochemical energy storage, electromagnetic energy storage and phase change energy storage. The physical energy storage includes energy storage, compressed air storage and flywheel energy storage. Electromagnetic energy storage includes superconducting, super capacitor and high energy density capacitor energy storage. The electrochemical energy storage includes lead acid, nickel hydrogen, nickel cadmium, lithium ion , Sodium sulfur and liquid flow and other battery energy storage; phase-change storage, including ice storage energy storage.
thermal power generation
Physical energy storage is the current grid-based energy storage technology

Pumped storage is currently the most important power storage technology. Pumped storage power station is equipped with two reservoirs on the upstream and the downstream. During the low load period, the pump energy storage equipment works in the motor state, and the downstream reservoir water is pumped to the upstream reservoir. The peak energy storage equipment is in the generator state, The water in the upstream reservoir generates electricity. Currently, pumped storage power stations around the world are mainly concentrated in the United States, Japan and Western Europe and other countries and regions, and the total installed capacity of more than 70 million kilowatts, accounting for about 1.2% of global installed capacity of power generation. The United States, Japan and Western Europe and other economically developed countries, pumped storage unit capacity accounted for the world's total installed capacity of pumped storage power station more than 70%. In recent years, the world's large-scale pumped storage power station applications are mainly Japan God River power station (installed capacity of 2.82 million kilowatts), the United States Rocky Mountain Power Station (installed capacity of 76 million kilowatts), Germany Jingu Power Station (installed capacity of 1.06 million kilowatts).

Compressed air energy storage is also a form of physical energy storage. Energy storage batteries, the compressor will be compressed air and stored in the storage room, the storage chamber is generally from the cylinder, caves, abandoned mines act. Release, the high-pressure air from the gas storage chamber release, work power generation. The current global compressed air energy storage installed capacity of about 40 million kilowatts. Compressed air energy storage technology research began in the 20th century, 40 years, 70 years later, Germany, the United States and other countries have put into operation compressed air energy storage system, will be dozens to more than 100 atmospheres of air stored in underground mines or caves, When the energy release by natural gas through the combustion gas turbine power generation, the efficiency of 42% to 54%. Compressed air energy storage technology is relatively mature, but large-scale application requires cave gas storage, site selection has some difficulties, after 2000, no new commercial operation of the case.

Electrochemical energy storage developed rapidly

Lithium-ion battery energy storage is the most widely used grid-type electrochemical energy storage. In recent years, large-scale lithium-ion energy storage technology has also entered the demonstration application stage, in particular, power lithium-ion batteries in electric tools, electric bicycles, hybrid electric vehicles and other fields into commercial applications. In addition, the United States, China and other countries in recent years is also carrying out high-power lithium battery in the storage power station in the application of research and practice. At present, the world's largest lithium-ion energy storage system is running A123 investment and construction capacity of 2 megawatts of energy storage power plant. As of the end of 2014, the global grid-connected lithium-ion energy storage installed capacity of about 293,000 kilowatts, of which the largest lithium-ion battery installed capacity of 11 million kilowatts.
PV Generator
Flow Redox Battery, referred to as liquid flow storage battery or flow battery, is regarded as emerging, efficient, and has broad prospects for the development of large-scale power storage battery. After more than 30 years of research and development of related technologies and materials, the largest commercial demonstration projects of the SRO batteries are Japan, which are mainly used in renewable energy power generation, peak load regulation, balanced load and small standby power stations. Million to 6 MW, the energy efficiency of more than 70%. As of the end of 2014, China's installed capacity of liquid battery more than 10,000 kilowatts.

Application of energy storage technology in power system

The first is the flywheel energy storage, is mainly used to supplement the battery system, such as for uninterruptible power supply/emergency power, peak and frequency regulation of the power grid. As of the end of 2014, flywheel energy storage total installed capacity in the United States of 40.5 megawatts, 2 megawatts in Canada. Second, super capacitors, at present, the United States TVA power company successfully developed 200 kilowatts of super capacitor energy storage system, mainly for high-power DC motor start-up support. Once again, the superconducting electromagnetic energy storage, is the use of superconducting coil will be directly stored in electromagnetic energy together, when necessary, then the electromagnetic energy return to the grid or other load. As well as thermal storage, this energy storage technology in the energy supply of the centralized supply side and the client has important applications. Finally, cryogenic energy storage technology can be used directly for large-scale energy storage (cold) energy management, the use of atmospheric pressure under very low liquefaction point, an effective solution to the general energy storage technology, small energy density and other issues. At present, some demonstration power plants and the British National Grid cooperation in the application of cryogenic energy storage technology for the grid to provide a variety of capacity requirements and ancillary services.

Whether the energy storage technology can be popularized and applied in the power system depends on whether it can reach a certain level of energy storage scale, whether it has suitable equipment for engineering applications, and whether it has high security and reliability and technical economy. Safety and reliability are always the basic requirements of power system operation. Megawatt/megawatt-scale solar energy storage system have higher requirements on safety and reliability of technology. Can they be safe at this scale and on a larger scale? Reliable operation will be one of the indicators to evaluate whether a stored energy technology can be used in large-scale commercial applications.

The future energy storage technology widely used in power systems, at least to megawatt/megawatt-class energy storage scale. At present, the pumped storage, compressed air energy storage and electrochemical battery energy storage can reach megawatt/megawatt-class energy storage scale, and flywheel energy storage, superconducting magnetic energy storage and super capacitor power type energy storage technology It is difficult to achieve megawatt-class. Specifically, pumped storage and large compressed air energy storage can reach hundreds of megawatt-class/hundreds of megawatt-class, battery storage, underground caves and natural gas does not use the new compressed air energy storage to megawatt/ Megawatt hours. Therefore, due to high safety and reliability, pumped storage, compressed air energy storage and battery energy storage energy storage technology is the first choice for large-scale development of energy storage technology.

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