Application Of Solar Cells In Space
Author: Source: Datetime: 2016-09-18 14:09:44
The first solar cell applications in space, portable solar power generator as satellites on the aircraft power applications. Later spread to terrestrial applications. Due to the long-term solar energy in a wide range of temperatures and sunlight intensity, but also has high reliability, high efficiency, long life and good resistance to radiation (including ultraviolet radiation and charged particles caused by space radiation), etc., such as an ideal space solar power generation has been widely used. Has all kinds of human launched into outer space craft mostly use solar cells as a power source. Over the past 50 years before the development of space solar cells. Seen from the table, Gao Si and GaAs solar cell efficiency is the preferred satellites.
About how to adapt to the complex space environment. Uncertainties low-orbit spacecraft in the space environment to run complex, high-density plasma, atomic oxygen and ultraviolet radiation, etc., are likely to structure and component damage cells. Spacecraft in space around the earth approximately every 90min, during which subjected to 180℃temperature difference test, such frequent high and low temperature conversion is required in the manufacture of PV modules must solve the problem of thermal expansion and contraction. To solve these problems, designers have developed a special test equipment simulate the space environment, and in the manufacture of solar photovoltaic modules using a special material.
Space Solar Power Station
Application of solar energy has become increasingly popular, but far from the large-scale application or that the transition from the stage to the auxiliary energy of conventional energy. The idea of space solar power plant is a good way to solve the problem. As early as 1968, American scientist Peter? Dr. Glaser proposed a startling idea continuously transported to the surface through the use of satellite power to establish a space station. Figure 6-2 for the solar satellite models.
The use of solar energy in space has wooden conditions in the Earth's surface than the superior use of solar energy, this idea is considered a great innovation. First, because the Earth's rotation, Earth's surface nearly half the time of day can not make full use of solar energy, and space is essentially no day and night points. Secondly, when the sun reaches the earth's surface through the popular layers, the radiation intensity has been greatly weakened, the sun reaches the ground, qe a considerable portion is reflected back. It is calculated that solar energy received in space than on Earth for at least four more times. In addition, portable solar power generator the construction of power plants in space are not as affected by latitude, geography, cloud cover and other objective factors at the Earth, and this is one of the advantages of the space station. In addition, the space near vacuum state, and the temperature is very low, which can greatly extend the working life of the solar cell and auxiliary equipment in the space. Moreover, the space station without a steady stream storage device can supply electric power to Earth, if a sufficient number of build solar power plants in space, the Earth's environment will not suffer so much pollution and destruction.
In the early 1970s, NASA had spent $ 20 million to conduct a feasibility study. Later, some of Japan, the former Soviet Union and European countries studied. Currently, there are already some countries proposed a design scheme. One solution is to build power stations on large satellites in geosynchronous orbit. In this orbit, the Earth flying lap time of satellites orbiting the Earth rotates once coincided with the same amount of time, you can use it to collect solar energy into electrical energy, then 24h constantly to earth station via microwave solar power generator. The solar cell obtained direct current is converted into microwave by microwave antenna on the satellite will be sent to the ground.
Receiving microwaves used on the ground rectenna and the directly into direct current (rectenna is the use of silicon Schottky barrier diode strings are connected in parallel to the role of, and calls upon the length and configuration of the dipole string spacing coincide with the wavelength of the microwave, so you can go through the full-wave rectified DC output directly taken part in the feeder conductor. with this rectenna subjected to microwave effect is very good, it can reach more than 90%). Overall, the space solar power station consists of three parts: a solar collector consists of a solar cell composed of a large area, a microwave antenna on the satellite antenna used to collect energy and on the ground.
The concept of space solar power station at the beginning of the proposed approach to the Earth due to lack of effective use of solar energy back to and was once considered unfeasible. It is Peter Dr. Glaser invented an effective method of microwave power transmission, greatly stimulated the interest in human research in space solar power plant. With increasing demand for electricity, the project which use solar power portable generator got more attention. Space solar power plant construction costs, although very expensive, but its operating costs are low.
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