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76-81 Photovoltaic power station monitoring system design

Author: Source: Datetime: 2016-12-28 17:19:27
4.1.7 Photovoltaic power station monitoring system design
On the large holy and "photovoltaic power generation system, the solar cell components are more scattered layout, it is necessary to set the necessary number of Yang monitoring system, the photovoltaic power generation system operating conditions, real-time weather data monitoring and control to ensure that photovoltaic Power station in the effective and convenient under the supervision of stable and reliable operation. At the same time, the operating parameters, status and historical meteorological data should be analyzed and researched on-line, which not only ensures simple, efficient and low-cost routine maintenance, but also predicts and predicts future power generation capacity of the system. The main monitoring parameters include the DC output voltage, current and power of the photovoltaic power generation unit, the inverter, the inverter, the booster station and the station electrical system. The monitoring parameters of the power plant monitoring system include: The voltage and current of the inverter, the AC frequency of the inverter output, the operating state and the internal parameters of the inverter, the air temperature and radiation intensity of each inverter unit area and the voltage of the 0.27kV / 10kV / 110kV step- The use of various parameters of the electrical system, and to achieve 0.4kV / 10kV / 丨 110 kV step-up substation and station electrical system of conventional control, protection and alarm.
Large-scale grid-connected photovoltaic power plant project covers an area of large, need less operation and maintenance personnel, station and outside the isolation engineering measures need to be simplified, for this, in addition to the necessary manual inspection and maintenance, but also need to design a more comprehensive security Monitoring system, such as wall infrared alarm monitoring system, closed-circuit television screen monitoring system.

4.1.7.1 Control level and control arrangement
(1) The level of control
① PV power plant monitoring system can be all-digital electrical monitoring system, the station has a unified data model and communication platform, 110kV and the main transformer system between the inter-intelligent devices with interoperability, through the use of IEC61850 standard communication protocol and GOOSE standard Process digital, can effectively improve the automation level of the whole station, reducing on-site scheduling time for the maintenance of the whole station automation system to bring convenience.
② Set up in the station area integrated building responsible persons and engineers, customers can monitor the network through the network of photovoltaic power plant important operating parameters. Computer monitoring system can also be realized with the ground of the telemetry, remote communication, remote control and other functions, and the operation of photovoltaic power plant parameters can be transferred to the remote monitoring of the remote monitoring computer.
③ The whole PV power station has a main control room, which can be set in the building of the 10kV distribution room of the booster station area. Operators in the main control room to large screen, operator LCD as the main monitoring means to complete the entire photovoltaic power generation system (including the boost station) operation and monitoring. The main control room can also be equipped with industrial TV monitor wall, the wall layout of the big screen, closed-circuit television monitor screen.
④ The station should be set up a closed-circuit television monitoring and wall security alarm system: in the step-up station, solar cells, inverter and other important sites and walls, etc. set up CCTV monitoring points, the monitor can be pre- Set the program, a group or a separate tour of the individual monitoring points or manually fixed-point monitoring of the important parts. The fence wall of the station can be equipped with infrared radiation safety alarm system, and the alarm control cabinet can also be arranged in the main control room.
⑤ In the boost station should also set a fire alarm system, fire alarm cabinets are also arranged in the main control room.
(2) Control room layout
① The main control room area layout The main control room is arranged in the booster station area 10kV power distribution room building, the main control room area according to need discretion. The control room side is also equipped with electrical equipment room, communication room, shift shift lounge and so on. Among them, the main control room is equipped with a computer monitoring system operator station, record printers, large-screen displays, the whole station industrial TV screen displays, fire alarm control panel and wall security system alarm control panel. Specific arrangements by the design unit to provide master control room and electrical equipment room floor plan.
② The main control room and electrical equipment room indoor layout The main control room console can be arranged in a straight line, the console is equipped with multiple color display, resolution ≥ 1280X1024 pixels, respectively, as the operator station (master / slave), five anti Workstations, remote workstations, closed-circuit television and wall anti-theft system display terminal use. The main control room can be set up wall-mounted large-screen display blocks, respectively, as NCS systems and closed-circuit television system as part of the display of solar photovoltaic power generation unit of the main operational data or other surveillance needs of the screen.
110kV bus protection screen, 110kV bus protection screen, battery device, feeder screen, UPS power supply and closed-circuit television cabinet, and other integrated automation equipment. The equipment is equipped with a network equipment cabinet, main transformer protection and control cabinet, 110kV line protection and control panel.
③ The main channel of the cable channel current monitoring device within the group of string current monitoring device communication cable through the convergence box after the final connection to the inverter; the temperature signal cable below the battery board along the battery board support laying between the panels used Through the pipe laying mode, and finally into the inverter along the cable bridge outside the square of the solar cell; the communication cable of each inverter room to the booster station is laid along the cable tray.
The main control room, electrical equipment room and communication room are used anti-static floor layer, and the power distribution device connected to the cable trough connected to the booster station.

4.1.7.2 The overall structure of the control system
(1) 110kV booster station monitoring
The digital monitoring system of PV power plant is based on the IEC61850 communication technology specification, and the information sharing and interoperability among the intelligent electrical equipments in the digital power plant are realized by layers and distributed. The whole layer is divided into three layers: station control room, the interval layer, the process layer • station control layer and the interval between the protection and control devices and between the spacer layer and the process layer merger between the device using IEC, 61850 communication protocol, spacer layer and process Layer intelligent interface devices between the use of GOOSE communication protocol.
The station control layer is the center of the monitoring, measurement, control and management of the whole grid-connected photovoltaic power station equipment. It is connected with the control station and the PV grid-connected inverter through shielded twisted pair, coaxial cable or fiber optic cable. The control station of the booster station is distributed in each power distribution room or main control room according to different voltage levels and electrical spacing units. In the station control layer and the network failure, the interval layer (including the inverter) can still complete the isolation layer monitoring and circuit breaker protection and control functions.
The main control station of the computer monitoring system (NCS) can have more than two, that is, a local monitoring master station and more than one remote dispatching station to realize local and remote (grid dispatching) on the photovoltaic power plant monitoring control, the control operation atresia.
110kV system uses electronic transformers and intelligent switch equipment in place, the output of digital current and voltage signals directly through the fiber into the electrical equipment room interval of the merger unit, greatly improve the accuracy and avoid interference with each other; the intelligence The switchgear accesses the process layer network, and transmits the information of the electrical and mechanical status of the circuit breaker and the command of the circuit breaker to realize the intelligent control strategy of the circuit breaker.
110kV system of the switchgear on the ground to install the appropriate intelligent protection and control devices, the relevant information through the 10kV indoor distribution network switch access control system.
DC system, UPS system, power meter screen, small current grounding line selection device, standby generator ATS switching device and fire alarm system and other public equipment information through the communication management machine access monitoring system.
Station control equipment, including monitoring the main station, anti-misoperation computer devices, printers, GPS devices and network devices, such as time. The space layer equipment consists of electrical equipment monitoring and control unit, electrical microcomputer protection device communication unit, inverter controller, bus current monitor, network communication unit and network system. Process layer equipment mainly by the 110kV system and the main transformer of the in situ intelligent unit composition.
(2) Solar photovoltaic power generation unit monitoring
According to site conditions, power plant photovoltaic power generation unit (square array) in place scattered layout, with a unit (square I array) using a centralized layout of the way. The temperature of each cell, the current of the DC distribution box, and the string current must be collected into the centralized inverter. The detailed operation of the inverter and the strings of photovoltaic power generation units can be observed on the LCD screen on the panel of the centralized inverter cabinet installed locally. The operating parameters of each PV unit (including DC input voltage and current, AC output voltage and current, power, grid frequency and fault codes and information, solar module operating temperature, regional irradiance, ambient temperature and solar solar cells String current, etc.) through the centralized inverter communication controller • Ethernet transmission through the appropriate communication management machine uploaded to the whole station computer monitoring system network • in the main control room of the boost station through the computer monitoring system operator Station to achieve the operation parameters of the monitoring, alarm, historical data storage, and can be displayed on the big screen.
In the whole station computer monitoring system operator station, each inverter can be individually parameter settings, according to the actual weather conditions set the inverter system startup and shutdown sequence, so that the operation of the entire power plant to the most Excellent performance and maximum power generation capacity.

4.1.73 automation control function
(1) The computer control system control function
The control function of the computer monitoring system covers the solar photovoltaic power generation unit and the 10kV / 110kV booster station system. The monitoring function mainly includes the following points.
① Digital vibration collection and display collection of solar cells, grid-connected inverter and boost station running real-time data and equipment running state and through local or remote display to reflect the data and picture the operating conditions. 10kV system adopts AC sampling, and the state quantity is connected to the monitoring system by means of empty contacts. The analog signals of the 110kV system and the main transformer are directly connected to the monitoring system by digital signals.

2 security monitoring on the acquisition of analog, state quantity and protection information for automatic monitoring, when the measurement is more limited, protection action, abnormal state changes, equipment anomalies, in time or in the distant place sound alarm, The exception area is displayed. Accident information should be stored and printed records, for post-mortem analysis of the cause of the malfunction.

③ Event sequence record PV power plant system or equipment failure, response to abnormal time changes in the order of automatic recording, storage, remote transmission, the recording resolution should be less than lms «
④ The calculation of electric energy can realize the calculation of active and reactive power, and the statistic analysis of time-sharing statistics and operating parameters.
⑤ Control operation can be realized on the booster station circuit breaker Hop Hop control of the main transformer neutral point isolation switch pull control, and has anti-misoperation and main transformer load voltage regulator step-up, step-down, Emergency stop control. It is possible to set parameters for each PV grid-connected inverter individually as well as start-stop.
⑥ Send a new command value to the protection device by sending data to the protection device of the booster station by exchanging data with the protection device. The protective device reports the protection action parameters to the monitoring system (action time, action, action value, Action Name, etc.
⑦ management of the automation device has three ways:
A. The human-computer interaction is realized by the liquid crystal display and the keyboard of each device;
B. Realize human-computer interaction through the local monitoring and management system of the booster station;
C. Implement the human-computer interaction through the remote dispatching master station.
⑧ Control has three ways:
A. Equipment installation at the local manual control;
B. Press control of man-machine interaction screen of local monitoring and management system of booster station;
C. Dispatch remote master station remote control.
The above-mentioned three kinds of control operations need to block each other, only receive a kind of control instruction at the same time.
⑨ Remote control computer monitoring system with remote workstations, remote workstations and remote control to achieve the telemetry, remote, remote control, remote control and other functions.
⑩ Other features Computer monitoring system with time recording remote function. Clock can be clocked by GPS. With a standard communication protocol, with a number of remote interfaces, if necessary, subject to the master station side of the communication protocol for unconventional data communications.
(2) Computer protection and automation devices function
① Main transformer protection
A. Differential protection protection action jump on both sides of the main circuit breaker. When the differential secondary circuit disconnection occurs, blocking differential protection.
B. Gas protection heavy gas protection action jump on both sides of the circuit breaker, light gas action signal.
C. Main transformer on-load tap-changer gas protection heavy gas protection action jump on both sides of the main circuit breaker, light gas action signal.
D. Release the protective action jump on both sides of the main transformer circuit breaker.
E. Backup protection
• 11OkV side of the installation of composite voltage to start over-current protection, protection with I time limit, the delay by the action of both sides of the main circuit breaker jump.
• The zero-sequence overcurrent protection is installed on the neutral side of the 110kV side, and the protection is of one-step type without latching of the directional components. As the total backup section of the transformer, the protective action is delayed to trip the circuit breakers on both sides of the transformer.
• The zero-sequence current and voltage protection of the non-directly grounded neutral point is installed on the 110kV side neutral point. When the earth fault occurs and the discharge gap discharges in the system, the transformer is cut off from the faulty network by the zero sequence overcurrent protection, 0.3 ~ 0.5s) jump on both sides of the main circuit breaker. If the discharge gap is not breakdown, the zero-sequence voltage protection action, the delay (0.3 ~ 0.5s) jump on both sides of the main circuit breaker.
• The main transformer 10kV side installs the compound voltage start over-current protection. Protection zone I time limit, the delay by the action of both sides of the main circuit breaker jump.
F. Main transformer over-load protection Both sides of the main transformer installed over-load protection, set three time limit, I time to send the signal, Π segment time to start the fan, III block time-limited voltage regulator.
② llOkV line protection device llOkV line protection set current speed protection, over-current protection, three-phase one reclosing, small current grounding automatic line selection, overload alarm.
③ 10kV station and low voltage transformer protection 110V low voltage transformer can be configured with current quick-break, over-current protection and non-power protection.
④ 0.38kV into the circuit breaker monitoring and control device power 380V into the line breaker to be installed monitoring and control devices.
⑤ Anti-misoperation blocking the whole station using a computer anti-misuse of the operating system, the system and computer monitoring system for communication links, can step-up station circuit breakers, disconnectors, grounding switches and network door for five anti-blocking operation.
⑥ GPS system The whole station is equipped with a set of GPS devices, which provide the time reference for the devices (monitoring and control devices, relay protection and safety automatic devices, etc.) that need accurate time running in the station.

4.1.7.4 Control equipment selection principle
(1) Monitoring system equipment
Due to the digital monitoring system used in PV power plant, this method is still in the stage of popularization in China. Therefore, it is recommended to use the system with successful performance in 110kV and above substation digital control. At the same time, should consider the actual situation of the existing power plant, control system selection should facilitate the operation and management, reduce staff training, reduce project cost and other factors preferred choice should be good technical support in the domestic product through the bidding standard way Select.
(2) Other control equipment
In order to meet the requirements of PV power plant design, the selection of other control equipment, in principle, mature and reliable.Total varieties as far as possible for the future operation and management and routine maintenance and selection of 110kV substations and above have a successful application performance Of high-quality system suppliers.

4.1.7.5 Power supply
(1) DC system
Station should be set up maintenance-free lead-acid batteries complete sets of DC power supply system. The DC system can provide a reliable DC power supply for computer monitoring systems, circuit breakers, communication equipment and accident lighting. The set of DC devices from maintenance-free batteries, DC feeder screen, charging equipment and other devices. Charging equipment can automatically charge the battery according to the discharge capacity of the float, balanced charge, and long-term stable operation.
The DC system device is arranged in the main control room and is monitored by the communication way in the computer monitoring system.
(2> AC non-stop power supply
The station will be equipped with a set of AC uninterruptible power supply, to monitor the host, five anti-host, network equipment, fire alarm system, closed-circuit television systems and other equipment to provide AC work power.

4.1.7.6 Fire alarm system
Consider a small fire alarm system in the 10KV / 110kV booster station area and in the inverter room, including detection devices (point or cable detectors, manual alarms), centralized alarm devices, power supply units and linkage signals Devices and the like. The centralized alarm device is arranged in the main control room of the booster station, and the detection point is directly connected to the centralized alarm device.
In 10kV / 110kV booster station equipment and rooms and the inverter room fire, the centralized alarm device immediately issued a sound and light signals, and record the fire address and time, after confirmation can manually start the appropriate fire facilities organization Extinguishing. Linkage control shall be adopted to control and monitor the feedback signal of the main control room, power distribution room fan, air conditioner, etc. in the boosting station.
See Table 4-10 for the installation of fire detection alarm system and fire fighting facilities of PV power plant.

Item Project Extinguishing system Fire detector type Fire control method 
One: the main control room
1 Cable sandwich "activities under the floor) Chemical fire extinguishers Linear temperature-sensitive or smoke-type Automatic alarm, manually confirmed manually after the fire
2 Electrical installation room Chemical fire extinguishers Smoke type Automatic alarm, manual recognition after manual fire fighting
3 Main control room Chemical days of firearms Smoke type Automatically reported, manually confirmed manually after the fire
4 Communication room Chemical fire extinguishers Smoke type Automatic alarm • Manual manual fire extinguishing
Two: the power distribution room
1 10kV power distribution room Chemical fire extinguishers Smoke and temperature type Automatically reported, manually confirmed manually after the fire
2 Cable trench Chemical fire extinguishers Linear temperature type Automatically reported, manually confirmed manually after the fire
3 Diesel generator room Chemical fire extinguishers Linear temperature type Automatically reported, manually confirmed manually after the fire
C: the transformer

Main transformer Chemical fire extinguishers Linear temperature type Automatically reported, manually confirmed manually after the fire

4.1.7.7 The closed-circuit television and wall security systems
(1) The closed-circuit television and wall security system
According to the large-scale grid-connected photovoltaic power station covers an area of large, scattered layout, station area wide range of characteristics, in the boost station, solar cells, inverter and other important sites and walls, etc. set up CCTV surveillance points, According to the scope or characteristics of different monitoring objects selected focus or zoom monitoring lens; and in the station area at the wall set up on the radio infrared alarm wall security system. The video signals of each closed-circuit television monitoring point are processed, distributed and transmitted to the monitor terminal in the main control room through the image broadband network, and the network is composed of two unified CCTV monitoring systems covering the project scope and reserved After the expansion of the project interface.
Set the infrared alarm wall security system can be closed-circuit television monitoring system to achieve alarm linkage: When the wall security system alarm, the main control room of the closed-circuit television monitor terminal will automatically switch to the alarm location or area surveillance images, and sound alarm and Displays the name of the alarm location.
(2) The closed-circuit television system to function
In the closed-circuit television system set up by the PV power plant, the following functions can be realized by programming: (1) normal patrol of the system; (2) monitoring of the split screen; (3) alarm monitoring; (4) automation and intelligent tracking of the whole process.
Each monitor can be pre-set procedures, group or separate automatic inspection of the monitoring point; or manually fixed point monitoring of the important parts of the system reserved control interface, can receive NCS system control signal, the system automatically switches, tracking And provides an output interface to drive devices such as long delay recorders.
(3) The wall security alarm system main function
Wall security alarm system through the infrared ray detection mode monitoring, to prevent the entry of unrelated personnel to ensure the safety of equipment. When the main control room receives the active infrared radio alarm, it can determine the alarm position, and through the installation in the vicinity of the closed-circuit television camera observation alarm to determine whether the false alarm and confirm the alarm area on-site status, confirm.0

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